Referencing

Referencing/citation with Discovery Library

1. Introduction to referencing

1.1 Why is referencing important?

Referencing supports the intellectual property rights of others’ work.  Therefore, when we use other people’s idea and work, we need to acknowledge it and cite and reference the information.  In an academic context, if we do not follow the rule, the action will be considered as plagiarism or academic dishonesty, and we will be penalised.

Copying or paraphrasing someone else’s work without referencing is the common type of plagiarism and academic dishonesty for college and university students.  Students must acknowledge any type of information, ideas, word, study findings, statistics, diagrams, graphs, photos, for their assignments.  Referencing also helps readers to find the link to the original work.

1.2 About APA referencing

While there are different referencing systems for publications, AIBT selected American Psychological Association (APA) referencing system, as the APA referencing system is commonly recommended for college and university students.  We use APA’s latest version of the publication manual, APA 6th edition, and it will be updated when a new version is available.  APA has two elements, in-text citation and referencing. When you directly quote or paraphrase someone else’s work, we must use in-text citation within the body of text and its detailed reference should be listed at the end of the document.

1.3 In-text citations

The first action to reference the information is to insert in-text citation in your work. In-text citations are important as an author of the original work will be informed to readers.  In-text citations are also important as it helps to increase the trustworthiness of information and the credibility of your arguments in the text to the readers.  There are several rules for using in-text citations.

The general rules

  • Insert an in-text citation within the body of the text, when we directly quote, paraphrase or summarise someone else’s work.
  • Insert an in-text citation when we use or copy information (e.g., diagrams, pictures, and statistics).
  • We must include an in-text citation every sentence in the text we cite.
  • When a direct quotation is used, the in-text citation must consist of the author’s last name, the year of the publication, and the page number

Example: Direct quotation

Helgesson and Eriksson (2015, p. 100) suggested that “plagiarism should be understood as ‘‘using someone else’s intellectual product (such as texts, ideas, or results), thereby implying that it is their own’’”.

Example: Paraphrasing

The action using someone else’s intellectual product without acknowledging their work is plagiarism (Helgesson & Eriksson, 2015). 

1.4 Reference list

All references cited in the text must be included in the reference list, and the list must be placed at the end of the document.   The APA reference contains detailed information which could include author, date and title, and other information specific to journals articles, digital object identifier (DOI), or page numbers. There are several rules for a reference list.

The general rules

  • Reference must include the information of who created the work, when the work was created, what the work called, and where to find the work.
  • References must be listed alphabetically by authors’ last names, the name of the responsible organisation or by title if an author is not available.
  • The reference list must be placed on a new page at the end of the text.
  • One referencing style (e.g., APA) should be used within the reference list.
  • DOI begin with either http://dx.doi.org/ or with 10 followed by a period.  

Example: book

Broadbent, J., & Laughlin, R. (2013). Accounting control and controlling accounting: Interdisciplinary and critical perspectives (1st ed.). Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald.

Example: journal article

Moser, D. V., & Martin, P. R. (2012). A broader perspective on corporate social responsibility research in accounting. The Accounting Review, 87(3), 797-806. doi:10.2308/accr-10257

1.5 Tools in the library

It is compulsory for AIBT students to provide accurate citations and references in their assignments. The Discovery Library provides the students with the guidance of where to find the information about the citations and references, and the tools of how to apply proper citation and referencing systems.  Once students are familiar with the system, it is so easy to format and manage it. Followings are some examples of the sources and the tools available for AIBT students.

eBooks

  • Neville, C. (2010). Complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Link: https://aibt.alma.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/openurl?institution=61AIOB_INST&rfr_id=info:sid%2Fsummon&rft_dat=ie%3D5110002270005796,language%3DEN&svc_dat

=CTO&u.ignore_date_coverage=true&vid=61AIOB_INST:Services

Online sources

Citation generator tools within the Discovery Library

Referencing tools

Contact to AIBT Discovery Library

2.0 AIBT Resources

2.1 About AIBT resources

AIBT provides different types of resources for students.  These resources include AIBT learner books and workbooks, PowerPoint slides (e.g., lecture note), class handouts (e.g., readings) and personal communications (e.g., consultations).  All AIBT resources mentioned above are required to be cited accurately.  The information on how to reference AIBT resources can be found in Section 2.2 to 2.6.

2.2 AIBT learner book and workbook

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for AIBT resources.  The first action to reference the information from AIBT resources is to insert in-text citations in our work. An in-text citation is important as an author of the original work (or copyright) will be acknowledged.  An in-text citation is also important as it helps to increase the trustworthiness of the information we use and the credibility of the arguments in our work. There are several rules for using in-text citations.

The general rules

  • Insert an in-text citation within the body of text, when we directly quote, paraphrase or summarise AIBT resources.
  • Insert an in-text citation when we use or copy information (e.g., diagrams, pictures, and statistics).
  • When a direct quotation is used (copy exact words directly from a learning material), an in-text citation must consist of the author’s last name, the year of the publication, and the page number.
  • When the content is paraphrased or summarised, an in-text citation must consist of the author’s last name and the year of the publication.
  • Insert “n.d.”, when the year of the publication is not available.
  • Include an in-text citation for each sentence we cite.

Example: Direct quotation

  • AIBT Global (2019, p. 12) defines “a strategic alliance is an agreement between two or more organisations to share resources in order to pursue a set of agreed objectives”.

Note: when a direct quotation is used, the author’s last name (or responsible organisation), the publication year and the page number must be presented in the in-text citation.  When there is no page number, we use a paragraph number. The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • In a strategic alliance format, two or more organisations share their resources to achieve agreed objectives (AIBT Global, 2019).

Note: when we paraphrase or summarise the ideas of AIBT learner book and workbook, the author’s last name (or responsible organisation), and the publication year must be presented in the in-text citation.

Reference list

AIBT uses customised learner book and workbook created for the specific course units.  The learner book and workbook are regularly updated, so please pay attention to the version numbers of your learning materials. When an author name is displayed on the learner book and workbook, use author name. When the author name is not available, use AIBT Global.  When the year is not available, use “n.d.”. Include the version number of the learnings material, if available.

Format with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of learner book or workbook. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12). Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with no author (online)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of learner book or workbook. Retrieved from URL

Example with no author (online)

Format with the author (print)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. (2019). Title of learner book or workbook. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with the author (print)

  • Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 1.5). Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with the author (online)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. (2019). Title of learner book or workbook. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example with the author (online)

2.3 PowerPoint slides

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 2.3 PowerPoint slides (lecture note) are the same as those in Section 2.2: AIBT Global Learner book and workbook.

Reference list

Format with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG607: Manage market research (Version 2) [PowerPoint slides]. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with no author (online)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example with no author (online)

Figure 2.1: PowerPoint slides with no author

Note: as shown above, when the author name is not available, use AIBT Global.

Format with the author (print)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with the author (print)

  • Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12) [PowerPoint slides]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with the author (online)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example with the author (online)

Figure 2.2: PowerPoint slides with the author

Note: when an author name is displayed on the PowerPoint slide, use author name. When the year is not available, use “n.d.”. Include the version number as a part of the title of PowerPoint presentation. 

2.4 Class handouts

AIBT Global provides students with different types of class handouts.  These class handouts include weekly readings, case studies, in-class exercise, and instructions. All AIBT class handouts are required to be cited accurately.

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 2.4 Class handouts are the same as those in Section 2.2: AIBT Global Learning Materials.

Reference list

Format with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of handout [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with no author (online)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of handout [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example with no author (online)

Format with the author (print)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. Title of handout [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with the author (print)

  • Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with the author (online)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. Title of handout [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example with the author (online)

Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

2.5 Personal communication

An in-text citation is required when referencing the personal communication. Examples of personal communications can be:

  • Emails
  • Personal conversations/interviews
  • Phone conversations
  • Memos

In-text citation

Format

(Person’s initial(s). Family name, Description of the medium, Month Day, Year)

Example

  • Professor A. B. Smith (personal communication, October 24, 2019) highlighted that
  • There are three major challenges for the Tasmanian Abalone industry (A. B. Smith, personal communication, October 24, 2019).

Reference list

Personal communication is not required to include in a reference list.

2.6 Summary: AIBT Resources

Table 1: Referencing for AIBT resources: Learning materials

In-text citation

Direct quotation: (AIBT Global, 2019, p1). Others: (AIBT Global, 2019)

Reference list

no author (print)

 

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of learner book or workbook. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12). Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
no author (online)

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of learner book or workbook. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12). AIBT Global. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Reference list
with the author (print)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. (2019).  Title of learner book or workbook. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 1.5). Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
with the author (online)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. (2019).  Title of learner book or workbook. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 1.5). AIBT Global. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

 

Table 2: Referencing for AIBT resources: PowerPoint slides

In-text citation

Direct quotation: (AIBT Global, 2019, slide 1). Others: (AIBT Global, 2019)

Reference list
no author (print)

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG607: Manage market research (Version 2) [PowerPoint slides]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
no author (online)

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG607: Manage market research (Version 2) [PowerPoint slides]. AIBT Global. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Reference list
with the author (print)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12) [PowerPoint slides]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
with the author (online)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). Academic writing for AIBT students (Version 1) [PowerPoint slides]. AIBT Global. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Table 3: Referencing for AIBT resources: Class handouts

In-text citation

Direct quotation: (AIBT Global, 2019, p. 1). Others: (AIBT Global, 2019)

Reference list
no author (print)

 

 

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of handout [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
no author (online)

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of handout [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Reference list
with the author (print)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. Title of handout [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
with the author (online)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. Title of handout [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Table 4: Referencing for AIBT resources: Personal communication

In-text citation

Format

(Person’s initial(s). Family name, Description of the medium, Month Day, Year)

Example

Professor A. B. Smith (personal communication, October 24, 2019) highlighted that

There are three major challenges for the Tasmanian Abalone industry (A. B. Smith, personal communication, October 24, 2019).

Reference list

Personal communications are not required to include in a reference list.

3. Books and eBooks

3.1 Printed books

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for printed books. See Introduction to referencing section for the rules.

In-text citation

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The subject is the person or thing that is ‘doing’ the action of the verb” (Anderson, Woods, & Ward, 2013, p. 49).

When direct quotation, word-for-word materials, is used directly from someone else’s work, the author’s last name, the publication year and the page number must appear in the in-text citation.  The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • The person or thing that is doing the action is called the subject (Anderson, Woods, & Ward, 2013).

When you paraphrase or summarise someone else’s ideas or piece of work in your words, the author’s last name and the publication year must appear in the in-text citation.

Reference List

Format

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Book name. City, State: Publisher.

Examples

  • Layton, A., Robinson, T., & Tucker, I. (2019). Economics for today (6th Asia-Pacific edition.). South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.
  • Pecorari, D. (2015). Academic writing and plagiarism: A linguistic analysis. London: Continuum International Publishing.

3.2 Ebooks

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for ebooks.  See Introduction to referencing section for the rules.

In-text citation

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The subject is the person or thing that is ‘doing’ the action of the verb” (Anderson, Woods, & Ward, 2013, p. 49).

Examples: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • The person or thing that is doing the action is called the subject (Anderson, Woods, & Ward, 2013). Or,
  • Anderson, Woods and Ward (2013) stated that the person or thing that is doing the action is called the subject.

When you paraphrase or summarise someone else’s ideas or piece of work in your words, the author’s last name and the publication year must appear in the in-text citation.

Reference List

Format with DOI

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Book name (Edition). doi. #

Provide the DOI when it is available. 

Examples with DOI

  • Ross, R. (2006). How to examine the nervous system (4th ed.). doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-081-2

Format with URL

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Book name (Edition). Retrieved from URL

Provide the home page URL of the book publisher, when DOI is not available. 

Examples: with home page URL

  • Neville, C. (2010). Complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Pecorari, D. (2010). Academic writing and plagiarism: A linguistic analysis. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

3.3 Chapter in an edited physical book

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for this section (See Introduction to referencing).

Reference List

Format

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Title of chapter. In A. A. (Ed.), Title of book (pp. #-#). City, State: Publisher.

After the author’s name, year, and the title, begin with the editors’ initials of the first and middle name followed by the surnames, surname, title of the book, the page, city, state: publisher.

Examples

  • Bradshaw, J. M., Feltovich, P. J., Jonker, C. M., & van Riemsdijk, B. (2010). The Fundamental Principle of Coactive Design: Interdependence Must Shape Autonomy. In M. de Vos, N. Fornara, J. V. Pitt & G. Vouros (Eds.), Coordination, Organisations, Institutions, and Norms in Agent Systems VI (Vol. 6541, pp. 172-191). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Kultur, C., & Yazici, C. (2014). Adoption, diffusion, and implementation of course management systems: A faculty focus. In A. D. Benson & A. Whitworth (Eds.), Research on course management systems in higher education (pp. 21-46): Information Age Publishing.
  • Sallei, L. T. (1995). A dynamic model of inter-generational Pig Language transmission. In R. K. Jambalaya, Creole studies (pp. 571-576). Amsterdam: Updyke.

3.4 Chapter in an edited ebook

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for this section (See Introduction to referencing).

Reference List

Structure: with DOI

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Title of chapter. In A. B. (Ed.), Title of book (pp. #-#). https:///#

After the author’s name, year, and the title, begin with the editors’ initials of the first and middle name followed by the surnames, surname, title of the book, the page, and DOI.

 

Examples: with DOI

  • Iacono, W. G. (2008). Polygraph testing. In E. Borgida & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Beyond common sense: Psychological science in the courtroom (pp. 219-235). doi: 10.1002/9780470696422

 

Format: with home page URL

  • Author, A. A. (Year Published). Title of chapter. In A. B. (Ed.), Title of book (pp. #-#). Retrieved from URL.

After the author’s name, year, and the title, begin with the editors’ initials of the first and middle name followed by the surnames, surname, title of the book, the page, and URL.

Example: with home page URL

  • Bellow, S. (1999). A silver dish. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best American short stories of the century. Retrieved from http://books.google.com

 

 

Format: a whole ebook through an e-reader

  • Author, A.B. (Year Published). Title of book [e.g., EBL; Kindle]. Retrieved from URL.

If the ebook is from e-reader (e.g. EBL) or platform (e.g. Kindle), place the type within square brackets after the title (or page) and before URL.

Example: a whole ebook through an e-reader

  • Gehrmann, R. (2017). Enemies of the state(s): Cultural memory, cinema, and the Iraq war. In J. Gildersleeve & R. Gehrmann (Eds.), Memory and the wars on terror: Australian and British perspectives(pp. 69-89) [SpringerLink ebooks]. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/

Format: Edited e-book chapter through an e-reader

  • Author, A.B. (Year Published). Title of chapter. In A. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [e.g., EBL; Kindle] (pp. #-#). Retrieved from URL.

3.5 Dictionary and encyclopaedia

The general rules

There are unique rules for referencing dictionary and encyclopaedia.

  • Indicate edition and number of volumes for a print copy.
  • Do not indicate the edition if it is the first edition.
  • Begin with the title of the article when there is no author.
  • Add a DOI at the end of the reference when it is available.
  • Pagination and volume number must be inserted in brackets.

Reference List

Format: Print

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Article title. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Name of dictionary/encyclopedia(Vol.#, pp. #-#). City, State: Publisher.

Example: Print

  • Horton, D. (1994). The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia : Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, society and culture . Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies.

Format: Online with URL

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Article title. In A. B. Editor (Ed.), Name of dictionary/encyclopedia(Vol. #, pp. #-#). Retrieved from URL.

Example: Online with URL

 

  • Encyclopaedia, Britannica Inc. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2010 Almanac, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Incorporated, 2009. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

 

Format: Online with DOI

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Article title. In A. B. Editor (Ed.), Name of dictionary/encyclopedia(Vol. #, pp. #-#). doi: #

 

Example: Online with DOI

  • Onwuegbuzie, A. J. & Mayoh, J. (2016). Mixed methods. In H. L. Miller Jr (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of theory in psychology. doi: 10.4135/9781483346274.n192

4.0 Internet sources

4.1 About Internet sources

The Internet provides information from different types of sources: webpage on a website, document, blog, social media, downloadable media, and streaming media. While AIBT recommends students to utilise the information from various sources, the students should carefully select the information which is suitable for their study purposes (e.g., the specific assignment).  AIBT students can use the following criteria to evaluate the information when using internet sources.

  • Accuracy – Does the page include references or bibliographies which show the origin of the source?
  • Authority – Who is the author or responsible organisation/business? Is the writer qualified?
  • Currency – Is the information current? When was the page last revised?
  • Purpose – Does the information provide multiple points of view?
  • The URL – Is the URL from government agencies, universities, well known international agencies, or credible organisations/businesses?

The information from internet sources should be referenced accurately.  Using the information from the internet is very useful; however, it is often difficult to determine the essential information (e.g., authorship) to reference.  Since inaccurate referencing is still be considered as plagiarism, it is important to learn how to reference internet materials correctly. Section 4.2 to 4.6 provide the formats and examples to reference the different types of internet sources using the APA referencing system.  

4.2 Webpage on a website

 In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.2 “Webpage on a website” are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note: when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Note: when someone else’s idea or piece of work is paraphrased or summarised in our words, the author’s last name and the publication year must be acknowledged in the in-text citation. The author of the webpage can be person or corporation, and “&” is used for the multiple authors.  

Reference list for webpage

Format with corporate author 1

  • Corporate author. (Year, Month DD). Title of webpage. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Examples with corporate author 1

Note: use the organisation name as the author, when the personal author is not available. In the above examples, “APA Style” and “Study in Australia” are the corporate authors of the webpages and “American Psychological Association” and “Australian Trade and Investment Commission” are the publishers of the websites. Insert full dates when it is available.  The title of the webpage should not be italicized, when referencing a normal webpage on a website. Include a date of access when the content of the page is like to be edited.

Format with corporate author 2

  • Corporate author. (Year, Month DD). Title of webpage. Retrieved from URL 

Example with corporate author 2

Note: In the above examples, “Australian Research Council” and “Mater Foundation” are the corporate authors of the webpages and the publishers of the websites.  Therefore, the publisher names were omitted to avoid repetition.  

Format with the personal author

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of webpage. Publisher. Retrieved Month DD, Year, from URL

Example with the personal author

  • Chan, J. (2019, February 15). No plan = no customers: How to build a profitable marketing strategy. Foundr Magazine. Retrieved November 4, 2019, from

 https://foundr.com/marketing-strategy

Note: in the above example, Chan is the author of the webpage and Foundr Magazine is the publisher of the website. When the content of the webpage is like to be edited, not updated for a while or not archived, include a retrieval date.  When the website directs to another webpage, create a reference page with a new webpage where the material is retrieved.

Format: Website news

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of webpage. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example: Website news

Note: when website news is not updated daily or weekly, use the “webpage on a website” format instead of a newspaper format.

4.3 Blog Post

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.3 “Blog Post” are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note:  when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Reference list

Format: Blog post

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title [Web blog post]. Retrieved from URL

Example: Blog post

Format: Comment on the blog post

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Re: Title [Blog comment]. Retrieved from URL

Example: Comment on the blog post

4.4 Social media

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.4 “Social media” (e. g., Facebook; Twitter; Instagram) are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note:  when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Reference list

Format: Facebook

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title. Facebook. URL.

Example: Facebook

Note: use the name of the individual or group as the author.  Use the first 20 words of the social media post as the title.  Include URL or another link, a hashtag, or an emoji in the reference list, if they fall within the first 20 words. When the images, videos, thumbnail links outside or other social media, indicate that in square brackets. Omit “retrieved from” before URL. 

Format: Twitter and Instagram

  • Author, A. B. [Twitter handle with @]. (Year, Month DD). Twitter/Instagram. URL

Example: Twitter and Instagram

The above example is adapted from reference examples, by APA Style, 2019, retrieved from https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples#tweet. Copyright 2019 by the American Psychological Association.

Note: use the name of the individual or group as the author.  Provide the Twitter handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets after the author.  Use the first 20 words of the tweet post as the title. Include URL or another link, a hashtag, or an emoji in the reference list, if they fall within the first 20 words.  If an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image is included, indicate in square brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with a link attached]. Omit “retrieved from” before URL.

4.5 Downloadable media

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.5 “Downloadable media” (e.g., podcasts; iTunes) are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note:  when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Reference list

Format: Audio

  • Name, A. B. (The role). (Year, Month DD). Title [Format]. Name of broadcasting organisation. Podcast retrieved from URL

Example: Audio

Format: Video

  • Name, A. B. (The role). (Year, Month DD). Title [Format]. Name of broadcasting organisation. Podcast retrieved from URL

Example: Video

Note: the role can be a reporter, speaker, writer, or producer of the article.

4.6 Streaming media

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.6 “Streaming media” (e. g., YouTube; Netflix; Spotify; video game live streaming site) are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note:  when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Reference list

Format

  • Author, A. A. (Year, Month DD). Title[Format]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Treat the account which uploaded the video as the author. However, the same video is often used by a different account. Ensure the author is the creator of the video by checking the author’s YouTube channel or official website.

5.0 Articles

5.1 Journal articles

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 5.1: “Journal articles” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “Many large organisations adjusted their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis” (Smith, 2019, p. 1).
  • Smith (2019, p. 1) found that “many large organisations adjusted their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis”.

Note: The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • The Global Financial Crisis influenced organisations’ routine work (Smith, 2019).
  • Smith (2019) found that the Global Financial Crisis influenced organisations’ routine work.

Note: when someone else’s idea or piece of work is paraphrased or summarised in our words, the author’s last name and the publication year must be acknowledged in the in-text citation. The author of the webpage can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format (print)

  • Author 1, A. B., & Author 2, C. D. (Year Published). Title of the article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Pages.

Example (print)

  • Moser, D. V., & Martin, P. R. (2012). A broader perspective on corporate social responsibility research in accounting. The Accounting Review87(3), 797-806.

Format with DOI (online)

  • Author 1, A. B., Author 2, C. D., & Author 3, E. (Year Published). Title of the article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Pages. doi. #

Example with DOI (online)

  • Moser, D. V., & Martin, P. R. (2012). A broader perspective on corporate social responsibility research in accounting. The Accounting Review87(3), 797–806. https://doi.org/10.2308/accr-10257

Format without DOI (online)

  • Author 1, A. B., Author 2, C. D., & Author 3, E. (Year Published). Title of the article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Pages. Retrieved from URL of the journal’s homepage

Example without DOI (online)

  • Ismail, A., Rose, R., Uli, J., & Abdullah, H. (2012). The relationship between organisational resources, capabilities, systems and competitive advantage. Asian Academy of Management Journal17(1), 151–173. Retrieved from http://web.usm.my/aamj/default.html

Note: use DOI when it is available and use URL of the journal’s homepage when DOI is not available. Italicise title of Journal and volume number.  “&” is used for the multiple authors.

5.2  Magazine articles

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 5.2: “Magazine articles” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • The Guardian Weekly (2020, p. 3) reported that “Nicole Kidman and the American country music star Keith Urban also pledged A$500,000 to the Rural Fire Services”.
  • “Nicole Kidman and the American country music star Keith Urban also pledged A$500,000 to the Rural Fire Services” (The Guardian Weekly, 2020, p. 3).

Note: the double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote. When a page number is not available from the online magazine, use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Nicole Kidman and her husband, Keith Urban, donated A$500K to the Rural Fire Services (The Guardian Weekly, 2020).
  • The Guardian Weekly (2020) reported that Nicole Kidman and her husband, Keith Urban, donated A$500K to the Rural Fire Services.

Note: the author of the article can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format (print)

  • Author 1, A. B & Author 2, C. D. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article. Title of the magazine, Volume(Issue), Pages.

Example (print)

  • Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science365(6457), 981–982.

Note: when the magazine article without DOI is from an academic research database, end with the page number.  Database information should not be included in the reference list.

Format with periodicals with DOI (online)

  • Author 1, A. B & Author 2, C. D. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article. Title of the magazine, Volume(Issue), Pages. DOI

Example (online)

Note: include DOI in reference list when DOI is available. 

Format with non-periodicals (online)

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article, Title of the magazine,

Example (online)

Note: include URL at the end of the reference, if DOI is not available.  When the online magazine does not have a volume, issue, and/or page numbers, omit the missing items.  

5.3 Newspaper articles

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 5.3: “Newspaper articles” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “A scholarship awarded to eight USC Moreton Bay students has been called “momentous” by a North Lakes recipient” (Pine Rivers Press, 2020, p. 2).

 

  • Pine Rivers Press (2020, p. 2) reported that “a scholarship awarded to eight USC Moreton Bay students has been called “momentous” by a North Lakes recipient”.

 

Note: when a page number is not available (e.g., online news), use para. and the paragraph number. The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Pine Rivers Press launched new-look newspapers which are more compact size than its predecessor (Powell, 2020).

 

  • Powell (2020) reported that Pine Rivers Press launched new-look newspapers which are more compact size than its predecessor.

Note: the author of the articles can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format (print)

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article. Title of newspaper, page number.

Example (print)

  • Macleod, A. P. (2020, February 13). Gardening neighbours: Artists explore initiative. Pine Rivers Press, 4.

Format (online)

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article. Title of the newspaper. Retrieved from homepage URL

Example (online)

Note: add URL at the end of the reference, when URL is available. When online newspaper does not have a volume, issue, and/or page numbers, omit the missing items.  When the article is from an online news website (e.g., news.com.au) which does not issue daily or weekly as an ordinary newspaper, use “Webpage on a website” format.  Use the homepage address for the online newspaper (not the full URL of the article). Use p. for a single page and use pp. for multiple pages (e.g., pp. 30-35).

5.4 Conference papers

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 5.3: “Conference paper” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “Many large organisations adjusted their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis” (Smith, 2019, p. 1).

 

  • Smith (2019, p. 1) stated that “many large organisations adjusted their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis”.

Note: The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • The Global Financial Crisis influenced organisations’ routine work (Smith, 2019).

 

  • Smith (2019) found that the Global Financial Crisis influenced organisations’ routine work.

Note: when someone else’s idea or piece of work is paraphrased or summarised in our words, the author’s last name and the publication year must be acknowledged in the in-text citation. The author of the webpage can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format (published conference proceedings available in print)

  • Author/Contributor, A. A. & Author/Contributor, A. B. (Year). Title of paper. In Editor, (Ed.), Title of Conference. (Page numbers). Location: Publisher.

Example (published conference proceedings available in print)

  • Hayes, R. & Murray, I. (2004). Consumers and Product Prices. In P. D.  Garcia, 7thAnnual Conference on Business Management: Industry Trends (pp. 7-10). Detroit, MI: Craig.    

Format (published conference proceedings available online)

  • Author/Contributor, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper. Paper presented at the title of the conference, location of the conference. Doi or location URL

Example (published conference proceedings available online)

Format (Print unpublished)

  • Presenter, A. B. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster. Paper presented at the Title of conference/organisation, Location.

Example (Print unpublished)

  • Pentland, B. T., Recker, J., & Wyner, G. (2016, 11-14 December). Conceptualizing and measuring interdependence between organizational routines. Paper presented at the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2016), Dublin, Ireland.

Note: when proceedings of conferences are published in a book, use book or book chapter format.  When proceedings are published regularly, use a journal article format.

6.0 Documents and reports

6.1 Government organisations

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 6.1: “Government organisations” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “Many large organisations changed their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis” (Chan, 2019, p. 22).
  • Chan (2019, p. 22) found that “many large organisations changed their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis”.
Note: the double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Chan (2019) found that the Global Financial Crisis impacted on large organisations’ routine work.
  • The Global Financial Crisis impacted on large organisations’ routine work (Chan, 2019).
Note: when someone else’s idea or piece of work is paraphrased or summarised in our words, the author’s last name and the publication year must be acknowledged in the in-text citation. The author of the document/report can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format
  • Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of publication (Report number, if available). Publisher (the copyright owner). Retrieved from URL

Example: with personal author

  • Hockings, M., Leverington, A.,Trinder, C. & Polglaze, J. (2014). Independent assessment of management effectiveness for the Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2014. Great Barrier Reef Marine Part Authority. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11017/2857
Note: when identifier to cite or link the document is suggested in the website, use the identifier instead of the full URL. Italicize the title when the document is standalone from the website.

Example: with a series identifier

Note: when a personal author is not available, use the name of the government agency responsible for the report. Include month, if available. When the document is standalone from the webpage, name of the report (e.g., pdf) should be italicized.  Include series identifier when it is available immediately after the title.  When the name of parent agency (or copyright owner) is present use it as the publisher.

Example: without series identifier

Note: when a government agency responsible for the report is the publisher (copyright owner), omit to insert the name after the document title to avoid repetition. When the document is standalone from the webpage, name of the report (e.g., pdf) should be italicized. When the homepages of government agencies or government organisations are difficult to determine, reference the full URL which can take the reader directly to the document. To identify government reports, look for a URL string.

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 6.2: “Non-government organisations” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “Commonwealth Bank reduces interest rates for home loan customers” (Commonwealth Bank of Australia, 2020, para. 1).
  • Commonwealth Bank of Australia (2020, para. 1) informed that “Commonwealth Bank reduces interest rates for home loan customers”.

Note: the double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Commonwealth Bank supports home loan customers by reducing interest rates (Commonwealth Bank of Australia, 2020).
  • Commonwealth Bank of Australia (2020) informed that they support home loan customers by reducing interest rates.

Note: when someone else’s idea or piece of work is paraphrased or summarised in our words, the author’s last name and the publication year must be acknowledged in the in-text citation.

Reference list

Example: with personal author

Note: italicize the title of the document when the document is standalone, not a part of the webpage.

Example: no personal author

Note: a full name of the organisation should be given the first time use within the document.

Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited. (2018). 2018 Annual report. Retrieved from  https://www.anz.com/content/dam/anzcom/shareholder/anz_2018_annual_report_final.pdf

7.0 Data

Figures include many varieties; the common figures for academic documents are graphs and charts. How to reference figures differ, whether we reprint someone else’s  original figures or create new figures using someone else’ data.

In-text citation

Citation underneath the figure is used instead of in-text citation. However, academic works commonly mention the figure in the text; AIBTGlobal recommends its students to mention a figure in the text. The best place to mention figures is just before the figures appear.  The followings are two examples of mentioning a figure.

Example: within a text

  • As shown in Figure 1, the different degrees of virtuality create unique patterns.
  • The different degrees of virtuality create unique patterns (See Figure 1).
When you are reprinting a figure from someone else’s work, you must include the source in the figure caption and use the term “Reprinted” instead of “Adapted from”.  Figure 1 is an example when you reprint a figure directly from someone’s source.  The source must be referenced with a full bibliographic entry in a reference list.

Format: Citation for a reprint

  • Figure #, Caption (the title of a figure). Reprinted from Title of work, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL. Copyright Year by the owner of a work.

Example: Citation for a reprint

Figure 1. Graph of the Service virtuality and impacts on service separation. Reprinted from Exploring service innovation capability in virtual servicescapes: An Australian higher education case, by Emiko Nozu, 2018, retrieved from https://eprints.qut.edu.au/120278/1/Emiko_Nozu_Thesis.pdf. Copyright 2018 by Emiko Nozu.
Note: if your work is likely to be published, you must seek permission from the copyright holder.

Reference list (Example for Figure 1)

  • Nozu, E. (2018). Exploring service innovation capability in virtual servicescapes: An Australian higher education case.
When you are creating a figure by compiling multiple data sources, use the term “Data for … from …” and include all sources in the figure caption. If you are not creating a figure but modifying someone else’s figure using their data, use the term “Adapted”.  All the sources must be referenced with a full bibliographic entry in a reference list. Figure 2 is an example when you create a figure using multiple data sources.

Format: Citation when creating a figure by compiling multiple data sources

  • Figure #. Data for … from (Year), for …from …(Year), for … from (Year), and for …from …(Year).

Example of a citation when creating a figure by compiling multiple data sources

Figure 2. Employment per major sector. Data for the UK from UK Department for Business Innovation & Skills (2012), for United States from U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics (2013), for Australia from Australian Department of Education Employment and Workplace Relations (2013), and for Canada from Statistics Canada (2015).

Reference list (Example for Figure 2)

  • UK Department for Business Innovation & Skills. (2012). Industrial strategy: UK sector analysis. Retrieved from
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/34607/12-1140-industrial-strategy-uk-sector-analysis.pdf

This section provides instructions on how to reference tables. If you are reprinting a table from someone else’s work, altering someone else’s table, or creating a table using the information from someone else’s work, you must reference them.  There are two sections you need to reference tables: above and underneath the table, and a full bibliographic entry in a reference list.  

In-text citation

While a citation above and underneath the table is used instead of in-text citation for tables, academic works commonly mention the table in the text. Therefore, AIBTGlobal recommends its students to mention a table in a text. A table should be numbered in the order in which appear in the document and referred by the number (e.g., Table 1 shows the four types of …).  The best place to mention a table is just before the table appears.  The followings are two examples of mentioning a table.

Example within text

  • Table 1 shows the four types of service features create marketing problems.
  • Four types of service features create marketing problems (See Table 1).

Place the table number, and provide the title (a descriptive phrase) in the next line. A table note (also called “caption”) should be placed underneath the table to acknowledge that the information is from another source. You use the term “Reprinted from” when using someone else’s original table, “Adapted from” when altering the table, and “data for…for…from…” when creating a table from multiple data sources. 

Format: data from a single source (e.g., journal article)

  • Adapted [or Reprinted] from “Article title,” by Author first name – initial(s). Author – family name, Year, Journal name, Volume, p. #.

Example: data from a single source (e.g.,  journal article).

Table 1.
Four types of service features

Features

Marketing problems

 Strategies to solve problems

Intangibility

·  Service cannot be stored

·  Prices are difficult to set

·  Stress tangible cues

·  Create a strong organisational image

Inseparability

·  Consumer involved in the production

·  Emphasise the selection and training of public contact personnel

Heterogeneity

·  Standardisation and quality control difficult to achieve

·  Industrialise service

·  Customise service

Perishability

·  Services cannot be inventoried

·  Use strategies to cope with fluctuating demand

Note. Adapted from “Problems and strategies in services marketing,” by V. A., Zeithaml, A. Parasuraman, & L. L. Berry, 1985, Journal of Marketing (pre-1986), 49, p. 35.

Reference list

  • Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). Problems and strategies in services marketing. Journal of Marketing (pre-1986), 49(2), 33-46.

Example: data from multiple data sources (e.g.,  online sources).

Table 2

Employment per major sector in Anglosaxon countries

                      Country

·       Sector       

UK

(2011)

US

(2012)

Australia

(2012)

Canada

(2012)

·       Primary

1.3%

1.5%

3.0%

2.0%

·       Production

16.5%

12.0%

11.0%

20.0%

·       Services

83.0%

81.0%

86.0%

78.0%

Note.  Data for the number of employment per sector for the UK from UK Department for Business Innovation & Skills (2012), for United States from U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics (2013), for Australia from Australian Department of Education Employment and Workplace Relations (2013), and for Canada from Statistics Canada (2015).

Reference list

Example for Table 2

  • UK Department for Business Innovation & Skills. (2012). Industrial strategy: UK sector analysis. Retrieved from

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/34607/12-1140-industrial-strategy-uk-sector-analysis.pdf

This section provides instructions on how to reference images found online. There are formal and informal formats for referencing images (e.g., photograph and artwork). The formal format is used for the work which is likely to be published.  AIBTGlobal students can use informal format for their assignments. All images in the document must have a full bibliographic entry in the reference list. If you did not get permission for reprint due to the academic work (e.g., assignments) omit the copyright information.

In-text citation

Citation underneath the image is used instead of in-text citation for images. However, academic works commonly mention the images in the text; AIBTGlobal recommends its students to mention images in the text. The best place to mention an image is just before the image appears.  The source must be referenced with a full bibliographic entry in a reference list. The followings are two examples of mentioning an image.

Examples in a text

  • As shown in Figure 1, AIBTGlobal uses green and black for its logo
  • AIBTGlobal uses green and black for its logo (See Figure 1).

Format of citation: Informal format for students’ assignments

·      Figure #. The title of an image (AIBTGlobal, Year).

Example of citation

Figure 1.  AIBTGlobal logo (AIBTGlobal, 2020).

Reference list

AIBTGlobal. (2020). AIBTGlobal logo [Image]. Retrieved from  https://aibtglobal.edu.au/
Image from AIBTGlobal resources (informal format for students’ assignments) Note. provide a citation under the image (if no title, a title should be created; use a descriptive phrase). The image should be numbered as Figure # in which they appear in the document. Images from Google

Format of citation: Informal format for students’ assignments

·      Figure #. Title of the image (or description, if no title), by the full name of the image’s creator, date of retrieval, retrieved from URL

Example of citation: Informal (under the image)

Figure 2. Photograph of Kallangur State School, by Emiko Nozu, March 1, 2020, retrieved from https://cdn.australia247.info/assets/uploads/be871abfcd69d993f089c826392e93ff_-queensland-moreton-bay-regional-kallangur-kallangur-state-schoolhtml.jpg

Reference list

·      Nozu, E. (2018). Photograph of Kallangur State School [Image]. Retrieved from https://cdn.australia247.info/assets/uploads/be871abfcd69d993f089c826392e93ff_-queensland-moreton-bay-regional-kallangur-kallangur-state-schoolhtml.jpg     
If the creator and a copyright holder are different, include copyright holder before “retrieved”.

Format of citation: Formal format (e.g., thesis and publication)

·      Figure #. Title of the image. Reprinted from the title of work, by Author, date, retrieved from … Date of Copyright by Copyright Holder.

Example of citation: formal

Figure 3. Cover of the APA Style manual. Reprinted from Concise guide to APA style, seventh edition, by American Psychological Association, February 24 2020, retrieved from https://apastyle.apa.org/products/concise-guide Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association.

Reference list

·      American Psychological Association. (2019). Cover of the APA Style manual [Image]. Retrieved from https://apastyle.apa.org/products/concise-guide

Many organisations such as universities, educational institutions, corporations, and so on have their own guidelines for citing ABS resources; AIBTGlobal sets its own guidelines which are as close as what ABS suggests on their website.

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 7.4 “Australian Bureau of Statistics” are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “Bushfires resulted in disruption to ABS data collection operations in some regions in New South Wales and Victoria during January 2020” (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020, para. 4).
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics (2020, para. 4) reported that “Bushfires resulted in disruption to ABS data collection operations in some regions in New South Wales and Victoria during January 2020”.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • The bushfires in Australia created some disruptions for ABS data collections in some regions in 2020 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020).
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics (2020) reported that the bushfires in Australia created some disruptions for ABS data collections in some regions in 2020.

Reference list

General ABS Website

Format:

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (Year). Title, followed by the date of viewing the information in the form: viewed dd month yyyy,

Example:

Time series spreadsheets

Format:

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (Year). Title, ‘Table/Figure #. Title of the Table/Figure’, Format/description of the information (e.g., time series spreadsheet, data cute, etc), catalogue #, viewed dd month yyyy,

Example:

Note: include a catalogue number when it is available after the title. Insert the date from the latest issue. Provide the whole URL from the address window in our browser.

Census material on the website

Format:

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009). ‘Title’, viewed dd month yyyy,

Example:

8.0 Number of authors

In-text citation

AIBTGlobal uses APA 6th referencing style and we follow the APA author-date citation system.  The system is based on the number of authors.  In the case of one or two authors, the author name(s) should appear in every citation. When the source has three or more authors, only the name of the first author should be included and add “et al.” in every citation (even the first citation).  Follow the following examples for citing references in the text. 

Number of authors and date

Example

1 author

Anderson (2018) suggested that

… (Anderson, 2018)

2 authors

Anderson and Batchelor (2019) suggested that

… (Anderson & Batchelor, 2019)

3 or more authors

Smith et al. (2018) found that

… (Smith et al., 2018)

Note: provide only the first authors’ last names with “et al.” for others.

No author

Use the first few words of the title instead of the author

Example 1

… (“Introduction to operational management”, 2018)

Use double quotation makes “…” for the title of the article, chapter or webpage. 

Example 2

… (Technology-oriented HRM, 2019)

Italicise the title for a journal, book, brochure or report.

Anonymous author

… (Anonymous, 2017)

Corporate author

If the organisation is recognised by the abbreviation (e.g., ATO), use full name and abbreviation for the first time. Use square brackets for the first citation and use round brackets thereafter.

Example with the first time use

… (Australian Taxation Office [ATO], 2019).

Example of thereafter

… (ATO, 2019).

If the abbreviation is not commonly known, provide the full name every time use.

Different authors with the same surname in the same year

Add the initials of the author’s first and given name/s to their surname to distinguish them.

Example:

While C. C. Chen (2019) recommended multiple approaches, C. D. Chen (2019) suggested a focused approach.  

Multiple references in one in-text citation

List the citations in alphabetical order and separate with semicolons

… (Anderson, & Batchelor, 2018; den Hartog, & Eberhardt, 2017)

The same first author with a different group of authors

When a multiple authors’ citation is abbreviated with et al., and when the group of authors are different, add enough surname to make it distinguished.

Example:

 … (Anderson, Batchelor, et al., 2018; Anderson, Chen, et al., 2018).

Multiple works by the same author/s in the same year

Use the author’s name for all entries.  If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, and use a suffix of a, b, c, d etc. after the year

… (Anderson 2011a, 2011b)

Multiple works by the same author/s in the different year

… (Anderson 2018, 2019)

List the earliest year first.

Citation with a secondary source

While APA 6th prefers the original source, the secondary citations can be used where the original is unavailable.

… (Fujimoto, 1990, as cited in Gonzalez, 2000).

Fujimoto (1990, as cited in Gonzalez, 2000) …

Gonzalez (2000) cited Fujimoto (1990) as finding …

 

Reference list

The APA 6th  referencing style suggests listing all name of the authors in a reference list when the work has up to seven authors.  For the eight and more authors, list the first six authors, add a three-dot ellipsis, and then the last author’s name. Follow the following examples for citing the references in the reference list.  

The number of author/s

How to sort out the author-name

1 author

Anderson, A. A.

2 authors

Anderson, A. A., & Batchelor, B. B.

3 authors

Anderson, A. A., Batchelor, B. B., & Chen, C. C.,

4 authors

Anderson, A. A., Batchelor, B. B., Chen, C. C., & den Hartog, D. D.

5 authors

Anderson, A. A., Batchelor, B. B., Chen, C. C., den Hartog, D. D., & Eberhardt, E. E.,

6 authors

Anderson, A. A., Batchelor, B. B., Chen, C. C., den Hartog, D. D., Eberhardt, E. E., & Fujimoto, F. F.

7 and more authors

Anderson, A. A., Batchelor, B. B., Chen, C. C., den Hartog, D. D., Eberhardt, E. E., Fujimoto, F. F., …Gonzalez, G. G.

List the first six, put an ellipsis, and then list the last author.

When two or more works are created by the same author in the same year

Use the author’s name for all entries.  List the earliest year first. If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, and use a suffix of a, b, c, d etc. after the year

Anderson (2011a). Title …

Anderson (2019b). Title  …

9.0 Bulleted and numbered lists

When we use someone else’s idea and work in the bulleted and numbered lists, they should be cited and referenced. This section instructs how to cite sources which are used in the bulleted and numbered lists. There are several ways to cite sources in bulleted and numbered lists, and the specific rule should be applied for each case.

In-text citation

Example 1 (paraphrased list)

Feldman (2000) suggests four reasons that actors often changed their routines:

·     the outcome of actions created a new problem;

·     the outcome of actions created new action opportunities;

·     intended outcomes are achieved, but actors see improvements; and

·     the outcomes of actions did not create expected results.

Note: as shown in Example 1, paraphrased Feldman’s ideas are bulleted and referenced.  Since the lists are paraphrased ideas, the page number is omitted. 

Example 2 (block quote list)

In her routines study, Deken highlights the three types of routine work.  These routines, she suggests:

·    flexing work means actors adapting existing interdependent actions in a routine that all participants are familiar with;

·    stretching work means actors adapting actions to stretch the application of an existing routine with other participants [within an organisation] who are unfamiliar with the routine; and

·    inventing work refers to actors building a new emerging action pattern without drawing on a particular existing routine (Deken, 2016, p. 653).

Note: we use block quote format for all lists taken directly from a source, and we don’t need to use quotation marks for each bullet point.  When we change or add words, insert the words in square brackets.  Insert in-text citation after the last list item.

Example 3 (directly quote – all items)

Feldman (2000) suggests four reasons that actors often changed their routines:

·     the outcome of actions created a new problem;

·     the outcome of actions created new action opportunities;

·     intended outcomes are achieved, but actors see improvements; and

·     actions did not create intended outcomes (p.11).

Note: When all items are direct quotes and an in-text citation is used (e.g., 2000) before the bullet lists, we include page number at the end of the list.

Example 4 (directly quote – one item)

Feldman (2000) suggests four reasons that actors often changed their routines:

·     the outcome of actions created a new problem.

·     the outcome of actions created new action opportunities.

·     “intended outcomes are achieved, but actors see improvements” (Feldman 2016, 25).

·     actions did not create desired/intended outcomes.

Note: when only one item is directly quoted among others, we use double quotation marks to set off the list and in-text-citation should be used for the item.

Reference list

All references cited in the text must be included in the reference list, and the list must be placed at the end of the document.  Follow the general rules of a reference list based on the type of materials you used.