Referencing

Referencing/citation with Discovery Library

1. Introduction to referencing

1.1 Why is referencing important?

Referencing supports the intellectual property rights of others’ work.  Therefore, when we use other people’s idea and work, we need to acknowledge it and cite and reference the information.  In an academic context, if we do not follow the rule, the action will be considered as plagiarism or academic dishonesty, and we will be penalised.

Copying or paraphrasing someone else’s work without referencing is the common type of plagiarism and academic dishonesty for college and university students.  Students must acknowledge any type of information, ideas, word, study findings, statistics, diagrams, graphs, photos, for their assignments.  Referencing also helps readers to find the link to the original work.

1.2 About APA referencing

While there are different referencing systems for publications, AIBT selected American Psychological Association (APA) referencing system, as the APA referencing system is commonly recommended for college and university students.  We use APA’s latest version of the publication manual, APA 6th edition, and it will be updated when a new version is available.  APA has two elements, in-text citation and referencing. When you directly quote or paraphrase someone else’s work, we must use in-text citation within the body of text and its detailed reference should be listed at the end of the document.

1.3 In-text citations

The first action to reference the information is to insert in-text citation in your work. In-text citations are important as an author of the original work will be informed to readers.  In-text citations are also important as it helps to increase the trustworthiness of information and the credibility of your arguments in the text to the readers.  There are several rules for using in-text citations.

The general rules

  • Insert an in-text citation within the body of the text, when we directly quote, paraphrase or summarise someone else’s work.
  • Insert an in-text citation when we use or copy information (e.g., diagrams, pictures, and statistics).
  • We must include an in-text citation every sentence in the text we cite.
  • When a direct quotation is used, the in-text citation must consist of the author’s last name, the year of the publication, and the page number

Example: Direct quotation

Helgesson and Eriksson (2015, p. 100) suggested that “plagiarism should be understood as ‘‘using someone else’s intellectual product (such as texts, ideas, or results), thereby implying that it is their own’’”.

Example: Paraphrasing

The action using someone else’s intellectual product without acknowledging their work is plagiarism (Helgesson & Eriksson, 2015). 

1.4 Reference list

All references cited in the text must be included in the reference list, and the list must be placed at the end of the document.   The APA reference contains detailed information which could include author, date and title, and other information specific to journals articles, digital object identifier (DOI), or page numbers. There are several rules for a reference list.

The general rules

  • Reference must include the information of who created the work, when the work was created, what the work called, and where to find the work.
  • References must be listed alphabetically by authors’ last names, the name of the responsible organisation or by title if an author is not available.
  • The reference list must be placed on a new page at the end of the text.
  • One referencing style (e.g., APA) should be used within the reference list.
  • DOI begin with either http://dx.doi.org/ or with 10 followed by a period.  

Example: book

Broadbent, J., & Laughlin, R. (2013). Accounting control and controlling accounting: Interdisciplinary and critical perspectives (1st ed.). Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald.

Example: journal article

Moser, D. V., & Martin, P. R. (2012). A broader perspective on corporate social responsibility research in accounting. The Accounting Review, 87(3), 797-806. doi:10.2308/accr-10257

1.5 Tools in the library

It is compulsory for AIBT students to provide accurate citations and references in their assignments. The Discovery Library provides the students with the guidance of where to find the information about the citations and references, and the tools of how to apply proper citation and referencing systems.  Once students are familiar with the system, it is so easy to format and manage it. Followings are some examples of the sources and the tools available for AIBT students.

eBooks

  • Neville, C. (2010). Complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Link: https://aibt.alma.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/openurl?institution=61AIOB_INST&rfr_id=info:sid%2Fsummon&rft_dat=ie%3D5110002270005796,language%3DEN&svc_dat

=CTO&u.ignore_date_coverage=true&vid=61AIOB_INST:Services

Online sources

Citation generator tools within the Discovery Library

Referencing tools

Contact to AIBT Discovery Library

2.0 AIBT Resources

2.1 About AIBT resources

AIBT provides different types of resources for students.  These resources include AIBT learner books and workbooks, PowerPoint slides (e.g., lecture note), class handouts (e.g., readings) and personal communications (e.g., consultations).  All AIBT resources mentioned above are required to be cited accurately.  The information on how to reference AIBT resources can be found in Section 2.2 to 2.6.

2.2 AIBT learner book and workbook

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for AIBT resources.  The first action to reference the information from AIBT resources is to insert in-text citations in our work. An in-text citation is important as an author of the original work (or copyright) will be acknowledged.  An in-text citation is also important as it helps to increase the trustworthiness of the information we use and the credibility of the arguments in our work. There are several rules for using in-text citations.

The general rules

  • Insert an in-text citation within the body of text, when we directly quote, paraphrase or summarise AIBT resources.
  • Insert an in-text citation when we use or copy information (e.g., diagrams, pictures, and statistics).
  • When a direct quotation is used (copy exact words directly from a learning material), an in-text citation must consist of the author’s last name, the year of the publication, and the page number.
  • When the content is paraphrased or summarised, an in-text citation must consist of the author’s last name and the year of the publication.
  • Insert “n.d.”, when the year of the publication is not available.
  • Include an in-text citation for each sentence we cite.

Example: Direct quotation

  • AIBT Global (2019, p. 12) defines “a strategic alliance is an agreement between two or more organisations to share resources in order to pursue a set of agreed objectives”.

Note: when a direct quotation is used, the author’s last name (or responsible organisation), the publication year and the page number must be presented in the in-text citation.  When there is no page number, we use a paragraph number. The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • In a strategic alliance format, two or more organisations share their resources to achieve agreed objectives (AIBT Global, 2019).

Note: when we paraphrase or summarise the ideas of AIBT learner book and workbook, the author’s last name (or responsible organisation), and the publication year must be presented in the in-text citation.

Reference list

AIBT uses customised learner book and workbook created for the specific course units.  The learner book and workbook are regularly updated, so please pay attention to the version numbers of your learning materials. When an author name is displayed on the learner book and workbook, use author name. When the author name is not available, use AIBT Global.  When the year is not available, use “n.d.”. Include the version number of the learnings material, if available.

Format with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of learner book or workbook. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12). Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with no author (online)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of learner book or workbook. Retrieved from URL

Example with no author (online)

Format with the author (print)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. (2019). Title of learner book or workbook. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with the author (print)

  • Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 1.5). Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with the author (online)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. (2019). Title of learner book or workbook. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example with the author (online)

2.3 PowerPoint slides

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 2.3 PowerPoint slides (lecture note) are the same as those in Section 2.2: AIBT Global Learner book and workbook.

Reference list

Format with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG607: Manage market research (Version 2) [PowerPoint slides]. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with no author (online)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example with no author (online)

Figure 2.1: PowerPoint slides with no author

Note: as shown above, when the author name is not available, use AIBT Global.

Format with the author (print)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with the author (print)

  • Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12) [PowerPoint slides]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with the author (online)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example with the author (online)

Figure 2.2: PowerPoint slides with the author

Note: when an author name is displayed on the PowerPoint slide, use author name. When the year is not available, use “n.d.”. Include the version number as a part of the title of PowerPoint presentation. 

2.4 Class handouts

AIBT Global provides students with different types of class handouts.  These class handouts include weekly readings, case studies, in-class exercise, and instructions. All AIBT class handouts are required to be cited accurately.

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 2.4 Class handouts are the same as those in Section 2.2: AIBT Global Learning Materials.

Reference list

Format with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of handout [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with no author (print)

  • AIBT Global. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with no author (online)

  • AIBT Global. (Year). Title of handout [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example with no author (online)

Format with the author (print)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. Title of handout [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example with the author (print)

  • Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Format with the author (online)

  • Author’s family name, Initial. Title of handout [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example with the author (online)

Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

2.5 Personal communication

An in-text citation is required when referencing the personal communication. Examples of personal communications can be:

  • Emails
  • Personal conversations/interviews
  • Phone conversations
  • Memos

In-text citation

Format

(Person’s initial(s). Family name, Description of the medium, Month Day, Year)

Example

  • Professor A. B. Smith (personal communication, October 24, 2019) highlighted that
  • There are three major challenges for the Tasmanian Abalone industry (A. B. Smith, personal communication, October 24, 2019).

Reference list

Personal communication is not required to include in a reference list.

2.6 Summary: AIBT Resources

Table 1: Referencing for AIBT resources: Learning materials

In-text citation

Direct quotation: (AIBT Global, 2019, p1). Others: (AIBT Global, 2019)

Reference list

no author (print)

 

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of learner book or workbook. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12). Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
no author (online)

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of learner book or workbook. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12). AIBT Global. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Reference list
with the author (print)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. (2019).  Title of learner book or workbook. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 1.5). Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
with the author (online)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. (2019).  Title of learner book or workbook. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 1.5). AIBT Global. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

 

Table 2: Referencing for AIBT resources: PowerPoint slides

In-text citation

Direct quotation: (AIBT Global, 2019, slide 1). Others: (AIBT Global, 2019)

Reference list
no author (print)

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG607: Manage market research (Version 2) [PowerPoint slides]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
no author (online)

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). BSBMKG607: Manage market research (Version 2) [PowerPoint slides]. AIBT Global. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Reference list
with the author (print)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). BSBMKG609: Develop a marketing plan (Version 12) [PowerPoint slides]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
with the author (online)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. (Year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [Description of medium]. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). Academic writing for AIBT students (Version 1) [PowerPoint slides]. AIBT Global. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Table 3: Referencing for AIBT resources: Class handouts

In-text citation

Direct quotation: (AIBT Global, 2019, p. 1). Others: (AIBT Global, 2019)

Reference list
no author (print)

 

 

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of handout [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

AIBT Global. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
no author (online)

Format

AIBT Global. (Year). Title of handout [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Reference list
with the author (print)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. Title of handout [Description of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Mt. Gravatt, QLD: AIBT Global.

Reference list
with the author (online)

Format

Author’s family name, Initial. Title of handout [Description of medium]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Smith, A. B. (2019). The benefits of digital marketing [Class handout]. Retrieved from https://moodle.aibt.qld.edu.au/my/

Table 4: Referencing for AIBT resources: Personal communication

In-text citation

Format

(Person’s initial(s). Family name, Description of the medium, Month Day, Year)

Example

Professor A. B. Smith (personal communication, October 24, 2019) highlighted that

There are three major challenges for the Tasmanian Abalone industry (A. B. Smith, personal communication, October 24, 2019).

Reference list

Personal communications are not required to include in a reference list.

3. Books and eBooks

3.1 Printed books

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for printed books. See Introduction to referencing section for the rules.

In-text citation

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The subject is the person or thing that is ‘doing’ the action of the verb” (Anderson, Woods, & Ward, 2013, p. 49).

When direct quotation, word-for-word materials, is used directly from someone else’s work, the author’s last name, the publication year and the page number must appear in the in-text citation.  The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • The person or thing that is doing the action is called the subject (Anderson, Woods, & Ward, 2013).

When you paraphrase or summarise someone else’s ideas or piece of work in your words, the author’s last name and the publication year must appear in the in-text citation.

Reference List

Format

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Book name. City, State: Publisher.

Examples

  • Layton, A., Robinson, T., & Tucker, I. (2019). Economics for today (6th Asia-Pacific edition.). South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.
  • Pecorari, D. (2015). Academic writing and plagiarism: A linguistic analysis. London: Continuum International Publishing.

3.2 Ebooks

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for ebooks.  See Introduction to referencing section for the rules.

In-text citation

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The subject is the person or thing that is ‘doing’ the action of the verb” (Anderson, Woods, & Ward, 2013, p. 49).

Examples: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • The person or thing that is doing the action is called the subject (Anderson, Woods, & Ward, 2013). Or,
  • Anderson, Woods and Ward (2013) stated that the person or thing that is doing the action is called the subject.

When you paraphrase or summarise someone else’s ideas or piece of work in your words, the author’s last name and the publication year must appear in the in-text citation.

Reference List

Format with DOI

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Book name (Edition). doi. #

Provide the DOI when it is available. 

Examples with DOI

  • Ross, R. (2006). How to examine the nervous system (4th ed.). doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-081-2

Format with URL

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Book name (Edition). Retrieved from URL

Provide the home page URL of the book publisher, when DOI is not available. 

Examples: with home page URL

  • Neville, C. (2010). Complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Pecorari, D. (2010). Academic writing and plagiarism: A linguistic analysis. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

3.3 Chapter in an edited physical book

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for this section (See Introduction to referencing).

Reference List

Format

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Title of chapter. In A. A. (Ed.), Title of book (pp. #-#). City, State: Publisher.

After the author’s name, year, and the title, begin with the editors’ initials of the first and middle name followed by the surnames, surname, title of the book, the page, city, state: publisher.

Examples

  • Bradshaw, J. M., Feltovich, P. J., Jonker, C. M., & van Riemsdijk, B. (2010). The Fundamental Principle of Coactive Design: Interdependence Must Shape Autonomy. In M. de Vos, N. Fornara, J. V. Pitt & G. Vouros (Eds.), Coordination, Organisations, Institutions, and Norms in Agent Systems VI (Vol. 6541, pp. 172-191). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Kultur, C., & Yazici, C. (2014). Adoption, diffusion, and implementation of course management systems: A faculty focus. In A. D. Benson & A. Whitworth (Eds.), Research on course management systems in higher education (pp. 21-46): Information Age Publishing.
  • Sallei, L. T. (1995). A dynamic model of inter-generational Pig Language transmission. In R. K. Jambalaya, Creole studies (pp. 571-576). Amsterdam: Updyke.

3.4 Chapter in an edited ebook

The general rules of an in-text citation are also applied for this section (See Introduction to referencing).

Reference List

Structure: with DOI

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Title of chapter. In A. B. (Ed.), Title of book (pp. #-#). https:///#

After the author’s name, year, and the title, begin with the editors’ initials of the first and middle name followed by the surnames, surname, title of the book, the page, and DOI.

 

Examples: with DOI

  • Iacono, W. G. (2008). Polygraph testing. In E. Borgida & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Beyond common sense: Psychological science in the courtroom (pp. 219-235). doi: 10.1002/9780470696422

 

Format: with home page URL

  • Author, A. A. (Year Published). Title of chapter. In A. B. (Ed.), Title of book (pp. #-#). Retrieved from URL.

After the author’s name, year, and the title, begin with the editors’ initials of the first and middle name followed by the surnames, surname, title of the book, the page, and URL.

Example: with home page URL

  • Bellow, S. (1999). A silver dish. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best American short stories of the century. Retrieved from http://books.google.com

 

 

Format: a whole ebook through an e-reader

  • Author, A.B. (Year Published). Title of book [e.g., EBL; Kindle]. Retrieved from URL.

If the ebook is from e-reader (e.g. EBL) or platform (e.g. Kindle), place the type within square brackets after the title (or page) and before URL.

Example: a whole ebook through an e-reader

  • Gehrmann, R. (2017). Enemies of the state(s): Cultural memory, cinema, and the Iraq war. In J. Gildersleeve & R. Gehrmann (Eds.), Memory and the wars on terror: Australian and British perspectives(pp. 69-89) [SpringerLink ebooks]. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/

Format: Edited e-book chapter through an e-reader

  • Author, A.B. (Year Published). Title of chapter. In A. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [e.g., EBL; Kindle] (pp. #-#). Retrieved from URL.

3.5 Dictionary and encyclopaedia

The general rules

There are unique rules for referencing dictionary and encyclopaedia.

  • Indicate edition and number of volumes for a print copy.
  • Do not indicate the edition if it is the first edition.
  • Begin with the title of the article when there is no author.
  • Add a DOI at the end of the reference when it is available.
  • Pagination and volume number must be inserted in brackets.

Reference List

Format: Print

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Article title. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Name of dictionary/encyclopedia(Vol.#, pp. #-#). City, State: Publisher.

Example: Print

  • Horton, D. (1994). The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia : Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, society and culture . Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies.

Format: Online with URL

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Article title. In A. B. Editor (Ed.), Name of dictionary/encyclopedia(Vol. #, pp. #-#). Retrieved from URL.

Example: Online with URL

 

  • Encyclopaedia, Britannica Inc. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2010 Almanac, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Incorporated, 2009. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

 

Format: Online with DOI

  • Author, A. B. (Year Published). Article title. In A. B. Editor (Ed.), Name of dictionary/encyclopedia(Vol. #, pp. #-#). doi: #

 

Example: Online with DOI

  • Onwuegbuzie, A. J. & Mayoh, J. (2016). Mixed methods. In H. L. Miller Jr (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of theory in psychology. doi: 10.4135/9781483346274.n192

4.0 Internet sources

4.1 About Internet sources

The Internet provides information from different types of sources: webpage on a website, document, blog, social media, downloadable media, and streaming media. While AIBT recommends students to utilise the information from various sources, the students should carefully select the information which is suitable for their study purposes (e.g., the specific assignment).  AIBT students can use the following criteria to evaluate the information when using internet sources.

  • Accuracy – Does the page include references or bibliographies which show the origin of the source?
  • Authority – Who is the author or responsible organisation/business? Is the writer qualified?
  • Currency – Is the information current? When was the page last revised?
  • Purpose – Does the information provide multiple points of view?
  • The URL – Is the URL from government agencies, universities, well known international agencies, or credible organisations/businesses?

The information from internet sources should be referenced accurately.  Using the information from the internet is very useful; however, it is often difficult to determine the essential information (e.g., authorship) to reference.  Since inaccurate referencing is still be considered as plagiarism, it is important to learn how to reference internet materials correctly. Section 4.2 to 4.6 provide the formats and examples to reference the different types of internet sources using the APA referencing system.  

4.2 Webpage on a website

 In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.2 “Webpage on a website” are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note: when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Note: when someone else’s idea or piece of work is paraphrased or summarised in our words, the author’s last name and the publication year must be acknowledged in the in-text citation. The author of the webpage can be person or corporation, and “&” is used for the multiple authors.  

Reference list for webpage

Format with corporate author 1

  • Name of organisation. (Year, Month DD). Title of webpage. Retrieved from URL

Examples with corporate author 1

Note: use the organisation name as the author, when the personal author is not available. In the above examples, “APA Style” and “Study in Australia” are the corporate authors of the webpages and “American Psychological Association” and “Australian Trade and Investment Commission” are the publishers of the websites. Insert full dates when it is available.  The title of the webpage should not be italicized, when referencing a normal webpage on a website. Include a date of access when the content of the page is like to be edited.

Format with corporate author 2

  • Name of organisation. (Year, Month DD). Title of webpage. Retrieved from URL

Example with corporate author 2

Note: In the above examples, “Australian Research Council” and “Mater Foundation” are the corporate authors of the webpages and the publishers of the websites.  Therefore, the publisher names were omitted to avoid repetition.  

Format with the personal author

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of webpage. Publisher. Retrieved Month DD, Year, from URL

Example with the personal author

  • Chan, J. (2019, February 15). No plan = no customers: How to build a profitable marketing strategy. Foundr Magazine. Retrieved November 4, 2019, from

 https://foundr.com/marketing-strategy

Note: in the above example, Chan is the author of the webpage and Foundr Magazine is the publisher of the website. When the content of the webpage is like to be edited, not updated for a while or not archived, include a retrieval date.  When the website directs to another webpage, create a reference page with a new webpage where the material is retrieved.

Format: Website news

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of webpage. Publisher. Retrieved from URL

Example: Website news

Note: when website news is not updated daily or weekly, use the “webpage on a website” format instead of a newspaper format.

4.3 Blog Post

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.3 “Blog Post” are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note:  when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Reference list

Format: Blog post

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title [Web blog post]. Retrieved from URL

Example: Blog post

Format: Comment on the blog post

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Re: Title [Blog comment]. Retrieved from URL

Example: Comment on the blog post

4.4 Social media

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.4 “Social media” (e. g., Facebook; Twitter; Instagram) are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note:  when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Reference list

Format: Facebook

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title. Facebook. URL.

Example: Facebook

Note: use the name of the individual or group as the author.  Use the first 20 words of the social media post as the title.  Include URL or another link, a hashtag, or an emoji in the reference list, if they fall within the first 20 words. When the images, videos, thumbnail links outside or other social media, indicate that in square brackets. Omit “retrieved from” before URL. 

Format: Twitter and Instagram

  • Author, A. B. [Twitter handle with @]. (Year, Month DD). Twitter/Instagram. URL

Example: Twitter and Instagram

The above example is adapted from reference examples, by APA Style, 2019, retrieved from https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples#tweet. Copyright 2019 by the American Psychological Association.

Note: use the name of the individual or group as the author.  Provide the Twitter handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets after the author.  Use the first 20 words of the tweet post as the title. Include URL or another link, a hashtag, or an emoji in the reference list, if they fall within the first 20 words.  If an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image is included, indicate in square brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with a link attached]. Omit “retrieved from” before URL.

4.5 Downloadable media

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.5 “Downloadable media” (e.g., podcasts; iTunes) are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note:  when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Reference list

Format: Audio

  • Name, A. B. (The role). (Year, Month DD). Title [Format]. Name of broadcasting organisation. Podcast retrieved from URL

Example: Audio

Format: Video

  • Name, A. B. (The role). (Year, Month DD). Title [Format]. Name of broadcasting organisation. Podcast retrieved from URL

Example: Video

Note: the role can be a reporter, speaker, writer, or producer of the article.

4.6 Streaming media

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 4.6 “Streaming media” (e. g., YouTube; Netflix; Spotify; video game live streaming site) are the same as those in Section 1.3 “In-text citations”.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “The students must use the library’s reference guides” (Anderson, para 1).

Note:  when a page number is not available use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Anderson (2019) recommended the library’s reference guides.

Reference list

Format

  • Author, A. A. (Year, Month DD). Title[Format]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Treat the account which uploaded the video as the author. However, the same video is often used by a different account. Ensure the author is the creator of the video by checking the author’s YouTube channel or official website.

5.0 Articles

5.1 Journal articles

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 5.1: “Journal articles” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “Many large organisations adjusted their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis” (Smith, 2019, p. 1).

 

  • Smith (2019, p. 1) found that “many large organisations adjusted their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis”.

Note: The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • The Global Financial Crisis influenced organisations’ routine work (Smith, 2019).

 

  • Smith (2019) found that the Global Financial Crisis influenced organisations’ routine work.

Note: when someone else’s idea or piece of work is paraphrased or summarised in our words, the author’s last name and the publication year must be acknowledged in the in-text citation. The author of the webpage can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format (print)

  • Author 1, A. B., & Author 2, C. D. (Year Published). Title of the article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Pages.

Example (print)

  • Moser, D. V., & Martin, P. R. (2012). A broader perspective on corporate social responsibility research in accounting. The Accounting Review87(3), 797-806.

Format with DOI (online)

  • Author 1, A. B., Author 2, C. D., & Author 3, E. (Year Published). Title of the article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Pages. doi. #

Example with DOI (online)

  • Moser, D. V., & Martin, P. R. (2012). A broader perspective on corporate social responsibility research in accounting. The Accounting Review87(3), 797–806. https://doi.org/10.2308/accr-10257

Format without DOI (online)

  • Author 1, A. B., Author 2, C. D., & Author 3, E. (Year Published). Title of the article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Pages. Retrieved from URL of the journal’s homepage

Example without DOI (online)

  • Ismail, A., Rose, R., Uli, J., & Abdullah, H. (2012). The relationship between organisational resources, capabilities, systems and competitive advantage. Asian Academy of Management Journal17(1), 151–173. Retrieved from http://web.usm.my/aamj/default.html

Note: use DOI when it is available and use URL of the journal’s homepage when DOI is not available. Italicise title of Journal and volume number.  “&” is used for the multiple authors. 

5.2  Magazine articles

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 5.2: “Magazine articles” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • The Guardian Weekly (2020, p. 3) reported that “Nicole Kidman and the American country music star Keith Urban also pledged A$500,000 to the Rural Fire Services”.
  • “Nicole Kidman and the American country music star Keith Urban also pledged A$500,000 to the Rural Fire Services” (The Guardian Weekly, 2020, p. 3).

Note: the double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote. When a page number is not available from the online magazine, use para. and the paragraph number.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Nicole Kidman and her husband, Keith Urban, donated A$500K to the Rural Fire Services (The Guardian Weekly, 2020).
  • The Guardian Weekly (2020) reported that Nicole Kidman and her husband, Keith Urban, donated A$500K to the Rural Fire Services.

Note: the author of the article can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format (print)

  • Author 1, A. B & Author 2, C. D. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article. Title of the magazine, Volume(Issue), Pages.

Example (print)

  • Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science365(6457), 981–982.

Note: when the magazine article without DOI is from an academic research database, end with the page number.  Database information should not be included in the reference list.

Format with periodicals with DOI (online)

  • Author 1, A. B & Author 2, C. D. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article. Title of the magazine, Volume(Issue), Pages. DOI

Example (online)

Note: include DOI in reference list when DOI is available. 

Format with non-periodicals (online)

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article, Title of the magazine,

Example (online)

Note: include URL at the end of the reference, if DOI is not available.  When the online magazine does not have a volume, issue, and/or page numbers, omit the missing items.  

5.3 Newspaper articles

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 5.3: “Newspaper articles” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “A scholarship awarded to eight USC Moreton Bay students has been called “momentous” by a North Lakes recipient” (Pine Rivers Press, 2020, p. 2).

 

  • Pine Rivers Press (2020, p. 2) reported that “a scholarship awarded to eight USC Moreton Bay students has been called “momentous” by a North Lakes recipient”.

 

Note: when a page number is not available (e.g., online news), use para. and the paragraph number. The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Pine Rivers Press launched new-look newspapers which are more compact size than its predecessor (Powell, 2020).

 

  • Powell (2020) reported that Pine Rivers Press launched new-look newspapers which are more compact size than its predecessor.

Note: the author of the articles can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format (print)

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article. Title of newspaper, page number.

Example (print)

  • Macleod, A. P. (2020, February 13). Gardening neighbours: Artists explore initiative. Pine Rivers Press, 4.

Format (online)

  • Author, A. B. (Year, Month DD). Title of the article. Title of the newspaper. Retrieved from homepage URL

Example (online)

Note: add URL at the end of the reference, when URL is available. When online newspaper does not have a volume, issue, and/or page numbers, omit the missing items.  When the article is from an online news website (e.g., news.com.au) which does not issue daily or weekly as an ordinary newspaper, use “Webpage on a website” format.  Use the homepage address for the online newspaper (not the full URL of the article). Use p. for a single page and use pp. for multiple pages (e.g., pp. 30-35).

5.4 Conference papers

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 5.3: “Conference paper” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “Many large organisations adjusted their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis” (Smith, 2019, p. 1).

 

  • Smith (2019, p. 1) stated that “many large organisations adjusted their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis”.

Note: The double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • The Global Financial Crisis influenced organisations’ routine work (Smith, 2019).

 

  • Smith (2019) found that the Global Financial Crisis influenced organisations’ routine work.

Note: when someone else’s idea or piece of work is paraphrased or summarised in our words, the author’s last name and the publication year must be acknowledged in the in-text citation. The author of the webpage can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format (published conference proceedings available in print)

  • Author/Contributor, A. A. & Author/Contributor, A. B. (Year). Title of paper. In Editor, (Ed.), Title of Conference. (Page numbers). Location: Publisher.

Example (published conference proceedings available in print)

  • Hayes, R. & Murray, I. (2004). Consumers and Product Prices. In P. D.  Garcia, 7thAnnual Conference on Business Management: Industry Trends (pp. 7-10). Detroit, MI: Craig.    

Format (published conference proceedings available online)

  • Author/Contributor, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper. Paper presented at the title of the conference, location of the conference. Doi or location URL

Example (published conference proceedings available online)

Format (Print unpublished)

  • Presenter, A. B. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster. Paper presented at the Title of conference/organisation, Location.

Example (Print unpublished)

  • Pentland, B. T., Recker, J., & Wyner, G. (2016, 11-14 December). Conceptualizing and measuring interdependence between organizational routines. Paper presented at the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2016), Dublin, Ireland.

Note: when proceedings of conferences are published in a book, use book or book chapter format.  When proceedings are published regularly, use a journal article format.

6.0 Documents and reports

6.1 Government organisations

In-text citation

The general rules of an in-text citation in Section 6.1: “Government organisations” are the same as those in Section 1.3: In-text citations.

Example: Direct quotation

  • “Many large organisations changed their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis” (Chan, 2019, p. 22).
  • Chan (2019, p. 22) found that “many large organisations changed their routine work after the Global Financial Crisis”.
Note: the double-quotation marks should be used to set off a direct quote.

Example: Paraphrasing or summarising

  • Chan (2019) found that the Global Financial Crisis impacted on large organisations’ routine work.
  • The Global Financial Crisis impacted on large organisations’ routine work (Chan, 2019).
Note: when someone else’s idea or piece of work is paraphrased or summarised in our words, the author’s last name and the publication year must be acknowledged in the in-text citation. The author of the document/report can be a person or corporation.

Reference list

Format
  • Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of publication (Report number, if available). Publisher (the copyright owner). Retrieved from URL

Example: with personal author

  • Hockings, M., Leverington, A.,Trinder, C. & Polglaze, J. (2014). Independent assessment of management effectiveness for the Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2014. Great Barrier Reef Marine Part Authority. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11017/2857
Note: when identifier to cite or link the document is suggested in the website, use the identifier instead of the full URL. Italicize the title when the document is standalone from the website.

Example: with a series identifier

Note: when a personal author is not available, use the name of the government agency responsible for the report. Include month, if available. When the document is standalone from the webpage, name of the report (e.g., pdf) should be italicized.  Include series identifier when it is available immediately after the title.  When the name of parent agency (or copyright owner) is present use it as the publisher.

Example: without series identifier

Note: when a government agency responsible for the report is the publisher (copyright owner), omit to insert the name after the document title to avoid repetition. When the document is standalone from the webpage, name of the report (e.g., pdf) should be italicized. When the homepages of government agencies or government organisations are difficult to determine, reference the full URL which can take the reader directly to the document. To identify government reports, look for a URL string.